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Asia

Abkhazia

Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны (Apsny), Georgian: აფხაზეთი, Russian: Абхазия) is a country that seceded from — but is still claimed by — Georgia. It lies mainly on the eastern shores of the Black Sea in the Caucasus region. To its northwest, across the Psou River (Псоу река) is Russia; the Russian city of Sochi is nearby. To its east, across the Enguri River, lies Northwestern Georgia. The Greater Caucasus mountain range occupies its northern territory. The coastal lowlands have a subtropical climate. In Abkhazia's small area snow-covered mountains meet beaches, caves and lakes. A long human history has left an architectural and cultural legacy that complements its natural beauty.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a landlocked and mountainous country in the heart of Asia, bordered by Pakistan to the south and east, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north. There is a short border with China to the far northeast, but in extremely inaccessible terrain. The country has great many valleys.

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Armenia

Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan) is a landlocked country in the Caucasus that is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east, and Azerbaijan's Naxcivan exclave to the southwest. This former Soviet republic straddles Asia and Europe and boasts an ancient and rich culture.

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Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a former Soviet republic in the Caucasus and variously considered part of Europe or Asia. The country lies on the Caspian Sea between Russia and Iran and is bordered to the west by Georgia and Armenia. The autonomous exclave of Nakhchivan lies between Armenia and Iran with a short border with Turkey. It is nicknamed the Land of Fire.

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Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh (Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ; Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ), officially the Republic of Artsakh, is a country in the Caucasus. It is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but is closely linked in every way to Armenia and accessible only through Armenia.

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Bahrain

The Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: البحرين‎ , al-Baḥrayn) is a Middle Eastern archipelago in the Persian Gulf, tucked into a pocket of the sea flanked by Saudi Arabia and Qatar. It displays relatively social liberalism compared with more conservative neighboring countries, where Islamic law is applied in a much stricter way. Case in point: alcohol is legal here. Although Bahrain has a heavily petroleum-based economy, its political, social, and cultural peculiarities helped it develop a fairly cosmopolitan middle class and a politically conscious working class.

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Bangladesh

The People's Republic of Bangladesh is a nation in South Asia, on the edge of the Indian subcontinent. It is nearly completely surrounded by India, having a small land border with Myanmar in the southeast and a coastline facing the Bay of Bengal in the south. Other than city-states, Bangladesh has the world's highest population density, with 163 million inhabitants (more people than Russia) in a land area smaller than the American state of Florida.

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Bhutan

Bhutan (officially The Kingdom of Bhutan) (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་) is a small country in the Himalayas between Tibet and India. Besides the stunning natural scenery, the enduring image of the country for most visitors is the strong sense of culture and tradition that binds the kingdom and clearly distinguishes it from its larger neighbors. Bhutan is the only Vajrayana Buddhist nation in the world, and the profound teachings of this tradition remain well preserved and exert a strong influence in all aspects of life. Due to its pristine environment and harmonious society, the tiny Kingdom of Bhutan has been called "The Last Shangrila."

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Brunei

The Sultanate of Brunei (Full name: Negara Brunei Darussalam, with Darussalam meaning "Abode of Peace") is a small but — thanks to natural gas and petroleum resources — very rich country in Southeast Asia. It is surrounded by Malaysia and has two parts physically separated by Malaysia, almost being an enclave. Strategically positioned on the South China Sea, close to vital sea lanes linking the Indian and Pacific Oceans, it is a country of tranquil mosques, pristine jungle, and friendly inhabitants.undefined

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា), sometimes transliterated as Kampuchea to more closely represent the Khmer pronunciation, officially the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា), is a country in Southeast Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.

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China

China (中国; Zhōngguó), officially the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国 Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó), is a vast country in East Asia. With 1.4 billion inhabitants, it is home to nearly a fifth of the world's population and is the most populous country in the world. It has a land area of 9.6 million km2, about the same as the United States.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, Turkish: Kıbrıs) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. After Sicily and Sardinia, Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is geographically part of Asia.

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Egypt

The Arab Republic of Egypt (Arabic: مصر, màSr) is in north-eastern Africa. Egypt is perhaps best known as the home of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with its art, temples, hieroglyphs, mummies, and above all, its pyramids. Less well-known is Egypt's Coptic Christian and Muslim heritage, with ancient churches, monasteries and mosques dotted across the landscape. Egypt stimulates the imagination of western tourists like few other countries and is probably one of the most popular tourist destinations world-wide.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus. Sandwiched between Russia in the north and Turkey in the south, it sits along the coast of the Black Sea. It is a rather mountainous country and is home to some of Europe’s highest mountain peaks. Despite its modest size, Georgia presents a large mix of other landscapes and micro-climates, ranging from dry wine-growing valleys in the east, to lush Black Sea resorts in the west. In Greek mythology, Georgia was the site of the famous Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts. The tales of Georgia's ancient history are not without foundation; modern archaeological evidence suggests that Georgia is the oldest winemaking country in the world, with some wine samples dating back to 6,000 years BC. In testament to this rich heritage, Georgia's cities and countryside are complete with medieval churches, several of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Enjoying low levels of crime and corruption, since the mid-2000s Georgia has developed into a fast-growing destination. The country's tourist infrastructure continues to expand.

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India

India (Hindi: भारत or Bharat) is the largest country in the Indian subcontinent and shares borders with Pakistan to the northwest, China and Nepal to the north, Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. Nearby island countries in the Indian Ocean are Sri Lanka to the southeast and the Maldives to the southwest.

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Indonesia

Indonesia is a huge archipelago of diverse islands scattered over both sides of the Equator between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. With more than 260 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world — after China, India and the USA — and by far the largest in Southeast Asia. While it has land borders with Malaysia to the north and East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the east, its exclusive economic zone also abuts Australia to the south; Palau, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, and Thailand to the north; and India to the northwest. With an extensive, but quickly carved out amount of green forests on all of its islands and half way between the poles, Indonesia is nicknamed The Emerald of the Equator.

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Iran

Iran (Persian: ایران) is a large country between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea. It was renamed Iran in the early 20th century; before that it was known as Persia. It is bordered by Iraq to the west, Turkey, Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan enclave, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to the northwest, Turkmenistan to the northeast, and Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east.

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Iraq

Iraq (Arabic: العراق Al-Irāq) is a republic in the Middle East, north-west of the Persian Gulf. It borders Iran to the east, Kuwait to the south, Saudi Arabia to the southwest, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, and Turkey to the north.

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Israel

The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל; Arabic: دولة إسرائيل) is a small yet diverse Middle Eastern country bordered by Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest, by the West Bank and Jordan to the east, and by Syria and Lebanon to the north. The country has a long coastline on the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and very limited access to the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba (often called the Gulf of Eilat in Israel). Since 1967, Israel has controlled most of the West Bank (often called "Judea and Samaria" in Israel) as well as the Golan Heights. Israel has annexed East Jerusalem and the Golan, but most other countries, except the United States, reject the annexation, and consider these areas and the West Bank (which Israel did not annex, and Israeli law does not apply to the area) to be occupied Palestinian territory. Wikivoyage takes no stance on these political issues, but notes that in practice, current visitors to these areas will need Israeli visas and permits.

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Japan

Japan, known as Nihon or Nippon (日本) in Japanese, is an island nation in East Asia. Its insular character has allowed it to develop a unique and very intricate culture, while its closeness to other ancient Far Eastern cultures, in particular China, has left lasting influence. Despite belonging to a forever warring nation, both internally and overseas, Japan's people had historically always placed emphasis on inner balance, tranquility and natural beauty. These traditional values have become increasingly important now that Japan has grown to be one of the world's most densely-populated countries, and its legendary work ethic makes life in its cities quite hectic.

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Jordan

Jordan (Arabic: الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north, Israel, the West Bank and the Dead Sea to the west and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city and the country's economic and cultural centre.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked country and, as the world's ninth biggest country by area, is the largest of the former states of the former Soviet Union apart from Russia itself. It has borders with Russia, China, and the Central Asian countries of Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, which it dwarfs.

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North Korea

North Korea (Korean: 조선 Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK (조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk) is a country in East Asia on the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, lying between Korea Bay and the East Sea (Sea of Japan). It borders China to the north, Russia to the north east and South Korea to the south.

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South Korea

South Korea (Korean: 한국, 韓國 Hanguk), officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국, 大韓民國 Daehan Minguk) is a country in East Asia. South Korea occupies the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, with North Korea to the north, China across the sea to the west and Japan a short ferry ride to the southeast.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (Arabic: الكويت) is a monarchy at the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

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Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан, formally the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы) is a Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions. Landlocked and mountainous, it borders Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the southeast. Annexed by Russia in 1876, it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. It has the most liberal tourist visa policy in Central Asia and one of the more progressive post-Soviet governments in the region. It is called the Switzerland of Central Asia.

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Laos

Laos (ສປປ ລາວ), officially known as the Lao People's Democratic Republic (ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ) (Lao PDR), is a nation in Southeast Asia, known for its mountainous terrain, French colonial architecture, hill tribe settlements, and Buddhist monasteries. A mountainous and landlocked country, Laos shares borders with Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, Thailand to the west, and Myanmar and China to the north.

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Lebanon

The Republic of Lebanon (Arabic: لبنان) is a country in the Middle East at the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Syria to the north and the east, and Israel to the south.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia, on the Malay peninsula, as well as on northern Borneo. The country is one of Asia's new tiger economies, having seen great economic and human development during the last decades. While the capital Kuala Lumpur is a cosmopolitan city, deep jungles cover some of the land.

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Maldives

The Maldives (Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raajje) are an archipelago of 1,192 coral islands grouped into 26 coral atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts) in the Indian Ocean. They lie south-southwest of India and are considered part of South Asia.

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Mongolia

Mongolia, known as Mongol uls (Cyrillic: Монгол улс, Script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) in Mongolian, is a landlocked country located between China and Russia. It's a vast emptiness that links land and sky, and is one of the last few places on the planet where nomadic life is still a living tradition.

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Myanmar

Myanmar (မြန်မာပြည်), or Burma, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (ပြည်ထောင်​စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာ​နိုင်​ငံတော်), is a country in Southeast Asia, bordering Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand to the east.

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Nepal

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल) is a landlocked country in the Himalayas in South Asia, bordering India and the Tibet autonomous region of China. It has eight of the world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest, the world's tallest, on the border with Tibet, as well as Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. In 2008, Nepal was declared a republic and abolished its monarchy.

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Oman

The Middle East Sultanate of Oman (Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is on the eastern side of the Arabian Peninsula. It borders the United Arab Emirates in the northwest, Saudi Arabia in the west, and Yemen in the southwest. Oman has two exclaves separated from it by the United Arab Emirates, the Musandam Peninsula and Madha.

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Pakistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان) is in South Asia and is the world's 34th largest country by size. With a population exceeding 180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world. Pakistan is strategically located astride the ancient trade routes of the Khyber and Bolan passes between South Asia and Central Asia. Another pass, which now has the Karakoram Highway through it, leads to Western China. All these passes, and some ports in Pakistan, formed part of the ancient Silk Road which linked Asia and Europe.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas) is an archipelago of more than 7,100 islands in Southeast Asia between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea.

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Qatar

Qatar (Arabic: قطر; pronounced kut-ar) is a rich Arab state occupying a small peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf to the north of Saudi Arabia, east of Bahrain and west of the United Arab Emirates.

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Russia

Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya) is by far the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, spanning Eastern Europe and northern Asia, sharing land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (by administering the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave on the Baltic coast), Belarus, and Ukraine to the west, Georgia (including the disputed regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Azerbaijan to the southwest, and Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea to the east and much of the south. While geographically mostly in Asia, the bulk of Russia's population is concentrated in the European part and, culturally, Russia is unmistakably European. Much of the Asian part, however, has more in common with Kazakhstan, Mongolia or Northeast China than with Eastern Europe. It boasts a rich history and culture.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is a kingdom which geographically dominates the Arabian peninsula, with coastlines on the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. It borders Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Yemen.

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Singapore

Singapore (Chinese: 新加坡; Malay: Singapura; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர்) is a city-state in Southeast Asia. Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819, and since independence, it has become one of the world's most prosperous countries and boasts one of the world's busiest ports. Singaporean food is legendary, with bustling hawker centres and 24-hour coffee shops offering affordable food from all parts of Asia. Combining the skyscrapers and subways of a modern, affluent city with a medley of Chinese, Malay and Indian influences and a tropical climate, with tasty food, good shopping and a vibrant nightlife scene, this Garden City makes a great stopover or springboard into the region.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකා Śrī Laṃkā; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), formerly known as Ceylon, is in Southern Asia. It is an island country in the Indian Ocean, south of India.

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Syria

Syria (الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة Al-Jumhuriya al-`Arabiya as-Suriya, the Syrian Arab Republic) is one of the larger states of the Middle East. Its capital, and second largest city after Aleppo, is Damascus, the world's oldest continuously inhabited city. Syria is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the east by Iraq, by Jordan and Israel to the south, and by Lebanon to the south-west. In addition, the western part of the country has a short coastline on the Mediterranean Sea.

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Taiwan

Taiwan (Traditional Chinese: 台灣 or 臺灣, Tái wān) is an island nation of about 36,000 km² off the coast of southeastern mainland China, southwest of Japan's Okinawa and north of the Philippines. The island is officially known as and governed by the Republic of China (中華民國 Zhōnghuá Mínguó) or ROC. Shaped roughly like a sweet potato, the nation is home to more than 23 million people and is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Besides its crowded cities, Taiwan is also known for steep mountains and lush forests. In addition to the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China governs the tiny Pescadores (Penghu), Quemoy (Kinmen/Jinmen), and Matsu.

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia that borders Afghanistan to the south, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and Uzbekistan to the west and northwest. The ancient Silk Road passed through it. The nation is unique in that the majority culture is non-Turkic, unlike its neighbors to the north and west and east. Tajikistan is the poorest country out of the former Soviet states, the poorest country in Central Asia and one of the world's poorest, largely owing to a devastating civil war that broke out shortly after independence in 1991.

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Thailand

Thailand (Thai: ประเทศไทย Prathet Thai), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย Ratcha-anachak Thai), is a monarchy in Southeast Asia with coasts on the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand.

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East Timor

The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), sits at the transition area between Southeast Asia and Oceania. It lies northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the small islands of Atauro and Jaco. It is one of only two countries in Asia with a Roman Catholic majority, the other one being the Philippines. Indonesia and East Timor are the only Asian countries reaching south of the Equator, and of them East Timor is the only country entirely in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Turkey

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye) is a bi-continental country, consisting of the Anatolian region of West Asia, and Eastern Thrace on the Balkan peninsula in Europe. These lands are separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey borders Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast, and Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast. While geographically most of the country is situated in Asia, most Turkish people consider themselves to be Europeans.

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia with a population of about 5 million, and an area around half a million km2, or almost the size of Spain. Neighbouring countries are Iran and Afghanistan to the south, and Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the north. It has a coast on the Caspian Sea, but is otherwise landlocked. Nearly 80% of the country is part of the Karakum Desert.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (Arabic: دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة) or simply the Emirates, is a federation of seven emirates on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula, at the entrance to the Persian Gulf. It has coastlines on the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. The neighboring states are Saudi Arabia to the west and southwest, and Oman to the east and southeast, including Omani enclaves on the Musandam Peninsula and at Madha. It is a country rich in history and culture and an easy starting point for travels in the Middle East.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has borders with Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. It has the largest population among all the Central Asian countries, and a heritage of the Silk Road.

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Vietnam

Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is a country in Southeast Asia. Its neighboring countries are China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west.

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Yemen

Yemen is on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, and sharing borders with Saudi Arabia and Oman. Since at least 2011, Yemen has endured a bloody civil war, and tribal conflicts are ongoing.

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