Novosibirsk, founded in 1893 at the future site of a Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river of Ob, first was named Novonikolayevsk (Новониколаевск), in honor both of Saint Nicholas and of the reigning Tsar Nicholas II. It superseded nearby Krivoshchekovskaya village, which was founded in 1696. The bridge was completed in the spring of 1897, making the new settlement the regional transport hub. The importance of the city further increased with the completion of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway in the early 20th century. The new railway connected Novonikolayevsk to Central Asia and the Caspian Sea.
Novosibirsk is a large industrial center. The industrial complex consists of 214 large and average sized industrial enterprises. These produce more than two thirds of all industrial output of the Novosibirsk region. Leading industries are aerospace (Chkalov's Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant), nuclear fuel (Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant), turbo- and hydroelectric generators (NPO ELSIB), textile machinery (Textilmach), agriculture machinery (NPO "Sibselmash"), electronics components and devices production (Novosibirsk Factory and Design Bureau of Semiconductor Devices NZPP, OXID Novosibirsk Plant of Radio components), metallurgy and metal working (Kuzmina's Novosibirsk Metallurgical Plant, Novosibirsk Tin Plant" OJSC, and JSC "Plant of Rare Metals).
- RATM Holding
- Antonov (Aircraft company) NAPO named after Chkalov
- Center of Financial Technologies
- The Siberian coast Food Company (until 2009)
- NETA IT Company (retail, system integrator, software sales)
- Parallels IT Company (software for virtualization)
- Inmarko Food Company
- Siberian Food Corporation
- Electro-vacuum plant (the largest glass bottle factory in the Asian part of the country)
- NPO NIIIP-NZiK
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