Destinations (14)

Kish Island

Iranian resort island in the Persian Gulf






archaeological site in Fars Province, Iran



capital of Iran



capital city of Kerman Province, Iran



Hamadan is one of the oldest cities in Western Iran, and some believe the world.



Almost everything about Mashhad relates to its role as the holiest city in Iran, even its name (literally: burial place of the martyr). As the capital of Iran's Khorasan province, Mashhad's year-round cool temperatures and fascinating insights into the Shi'ite heartland have much to offer visitors.



Qeshm is the largest island in the Persian Gulf, with rocky coastlines that protects a mountainous and often beautiful interior. The coast is dotted with small villages and towns. Qeshm Island is a duty-free zone.



ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire



city of Iran



capital of Isfahan Province in Iran



capital city of Yazd Province, Iran



most populated city in northwest Iran



city in Fars Province, Iran

Sights (99)


city in Iran


Lake Urmia

A salt lake with salt beaches and improbable bathing spots (gender separate, of course). Numerous migratory birds stop there on their long trip for some rest and food. The lake is drying because of the many dams on the feeding rivers, so check for the status of the lake before heading towards the lake.


Azadi Tower

Azadi Tower built in 1971 in commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, this "Gateway into Iran" was named the Shahyad Tower, meaning "Kings' Memorial", but was dubbed Azadi (Freedom) after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. It is 50 m tall and completely clad in cut marble.


Blue Mosque, Tabriz

Built in 1465, this mosque was famous because of its blue tiles. It was severely damaged in an earthquake in 1778, leaving only the entrance Iwan. It was reconstructed in 1970s by the Iranian Ministry of Culture. Inside of the mosque was tiled with superb blue ceramic many of them destroyed during the earthquake. During reconstruction which is still in progress many of the missing parts replaced by painting instead of tiles. Some of the original tiles are the entrance.




Saint Stepanos Monastery

This 9th-century Armenian church is north of Tabriz and south of Aras River, close to the Iran-Nakhichevan border. Along with two other Armenian churches in the region (St Thaddeus and the Chapel of Dzordzor) it was inscribed a UNESCO site in 2008.



ancient city that was the capital of Medes


Jameh Mosque of Isfahan

Started in AD 842, this is the first Islamic building to adopt the four-courtyard layout of Sassanid palaces.


Shahrestan Bridge

11th century. It is one of the oldest surviving bridges in Iran, built in the 14th century (CE).


Khaju Bridge

1650. It is the finest bridge in the province of Isfahan and built by the Persian Safavid king, Shah Abbas II around 1650 CE. This structure used to be ornamented with artistic tile works and paintings. It served as a teahouse.


Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque

One of the architectural masterpieces of Safavid Iranian architecture, this mosque is considered to be the most beautiful in Iran. Built in 1602 by Shah Abbas I and designed by his chief architect, Sheikh Bahai. The mosque was designed to be a private mosque for the royal family and therefore it does not have any minarets. There is a tunnel from the mosque to the Royal Palace, across the square.


Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art

art museum in Tehran


Naqsh-e Jahan Square

Also known as shah square or imam square-1602 (Meidan Emam). The square contains two mosques, a palace, and the bazaar. The square is the largest historical public square in the world after Tiananmen Square in Beijing and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The square is surrounded by buildings from the Safavid era, and souvenir shops. This a very popular place for locals to picnic on Friday and holiday evenings. When sitting on the grass locals will approach you to practise their English.


Bazaar of Tabriz

One of the oldest bazaars of the Middle East and the largest covered bazaar in the world. It was inscribed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in July 2010. The bazaar is still alive and considered one of the major shopping and commerce center in Tabriz. Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centers on the Silk Road. Located in the center of the city of Tabriz, Iran. Bazar consists of several sub-units called Bazarche (sub-Bazar) each of which devoted to trade and shopping of specified goods. The most famous Bazarches are Amir Bazaar (for gold and jewelry) and Mozzafarieh (a carpet bazaar). Although, numerous modern shops and malls have been established nowadays, the bazaar of Tabriz has remained economic heart of both the city and northwestern of Iran.


Tomb of Cyrus

The burial place of the ancient Cyrus the Great of Persia who founded of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. However it is unfortunately hidden under an ugly scaffolding and corrugated iron roof. It's an UNESCO World Heritage site, listed as Pasargadae.


Vank Cathedral

17th-century Armenian cathedral. The interior is covered with fine paintings and gilded carvings and includes a wainscot of rich tile work. The delicately blue and gold painted central dome depicts the Biblical story of creation of the world and man's expulsion from Eden.


Chehel Sotoun

1647. It is called Palace of forty columns, as there are many columns, and in Iranian, 40 means many. Incidentally, there are twenty columns, and these are reflected in the pool in front, which might also account for its name. The function of this palace was for holding religious-national ceremonies and royal festivals and for receiving royal ambassadors and guests. Its Persian Gardens are among the nine inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Contains some spectacular battle murals.


Imam Reza shrine

Iranian national heritage site


Ālī Qāpū

Early 17th century. It is 48 meters high and there are seven floors, each accessible by a difficult spiral staircase. In the sixth floor music room, deep circular niches are found in the walls, having not only aesthetic value, but also acoustic. It is rich in naturalistic wall paintings by Reza Abbassi, the court painter of Shah Abbas I, and his pupils. There are floral, animal and bird motifs.


Arg of Tabriz

It is a 28-meter wall which is the remnants of Tabriz city citadel and city wall. Ark construction was aimed to make a big mosque in the 13th century; however, the construction was never completed and a devastating earthquake ruined much of it except the main wall of the mihrab, which is still standing today. In later years this wall used as part of the city wall and the main part of fortress of Tabriz until end of Qdjar dynasty. During the wars of Safavid-Ottoman, and Perso-Russian wars this fortress was always one of the major Strong holds of Iranian troops. In early 20th century the constitutional revolutionists used the ark citadel as their military base in Tabriz. At the collapse of Autonomous Government of Azerbaijan Ark was the latest resistance of their troops against Iranian army. The surrounding area of Ark has been used to build another big mosque for Friday prayers.


Arg of Karim Khan

Formerly a prison, but now an architectural wonder on exhibit. The design of the citadel combines military and residential architecture, for it was the home of Karim Khan and the military centre of the dynasty. Tile works depicting legendary tales were added at the entrance gate of the citadel during the Qajar period.


Shazdeh Garden

Mahan is 30 km away. There you can see Shazdeh's garden which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It covers about 5.5 hectares, with a rectangular shape and a wall around it. The garden is a fine example of Persian gardens that take advantage of a suitable natural climate and also contains the Shah-Ne'matollah-e-Vali monument.


Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini

The gigantic mausoleum is on the southern edge of the city. The sheer size of the shrine/shopping centre is enough to make the trip worth it. Women can borrow chadors at entrance. Bags have to be left for free at one of the compound doors.


Eram Garden

Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, this stunningly beautiful complex contains a vast network of gardens, a colorful palace, and a system of small artificial rivers flowing throughout the entire area. It houses wonderful flora, and you can follow the little canals' intricate system. Make sure the weather is sunny before coming here!


Malik National Museum of Iran

Art collections, coins, stamps, carpets.


Jameh Mosque of Yazd



Pars Museum

Museum's pavilion was the place in which royal guests were hosted during the Zand dynasty. It was also used for holding official ceremonies and later became the burial place of Karim Khan Zand. Now it exhibits 30 handwritten Qurans and paintings of Persian artists.


Abgineh Museum of Tehran



El-Gulu or as local calls Shah-Gulu is a grand park in south east of Tabriz. There is a big rectangular artificial lake in the middle of the Park with a restaurant. This place used to be a summer palace for the Iranian royal families during the time that Tabriz was the capital of the state and once it was the resident for the crown prince. Nowadays the palace in the middle renovated in the form of a restaurant and a small amusement park is constructed in next to the park. In summer time many residents came to the park and dust hike through the pedestrian pathway around the lake or have their dinner in the Forrest hills next to the lake.


Carpet Museum of Iran

This exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from 18th century to present. It has a library that contains 7,000 books.


Avicenna Mausoleum

Iranian national heritage site


Shah Cheragh

A funerary monument and mosque, housing the tomb of Seyed Amir Ahmad, known as Shah-e Cheragh, the brother of Imam Reza, came to Shiraz in the latter half of the 8th century. He died in the city and his tomb is now a place of pilgrimage. The structure, tile work and the dome of the mausoleum have been rebuilt several times over the centuries. The tomb, the beautiful silver doors and the exquisite mirror work are the handicrafts of masters and contemporary artists of Shiraz. Regarded as the holiest place in Shiraz. Besides, it houses a small museum exhibiting about 30 very old and rare Qur'an books.


Vakil Bazaar

Huge ancient bazaar specializing in fine carpets, textiles, antiques and handicrafts, and spices. There is also a wonderful courtyard with a pool located in the bazaar, perfect for photographs. Caravansarais, bath houses, and old shops where hundreds of vendors are housed.


Fatima Masumeh Shrine

The Holy Shrine is the burial place of "Fatema È Massumeh". Also buried within the shrine are three daughters of ninth, Twelver Shī‘ah Imām, Muhammad at-Taqī. Women must wear a chador to enter. Foreigners need to be accompanied by a free guide.



A big dome topping at around 3,700 m. Interesting to climb in summer, or for skiing in winter (1 lift available, another in progress)



archaeological site


Museum of the Qasr Prison

Closed or moved? Now there is the Islamic Revolution Court? (دادگاه انقلاب اسلامی) - It was built by the order of Fat′h Ali Shah of the Qajar dynasty in 1790 in the form of a palace.


Jameh Mosque of Tabriz

This is a large, congregational mosque (Jāmeh) in Tabrīz city built and repaired from Seljughiya to Qadjar era (11th till 19th century). It used to be the main mosque for the city of Tabriz and it still used for prays and some other religious ceremonies. It has a Shabistan with nice colorful windows.


University of Religions and Denominations


Ali Gholi Agha hammam


Nasir-ol-molk Mosque

Mosque in Iran


Sa'dabad Complex

A palace built by the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in the Shemiran area of Tehran. The complex was first inhabited by Qajar monarchs and royal family in the 19th century. Parts of the Saadabad Palace compound are museums, in which visitors can roam through and look at the rich history of Iran. The following museums make up the complex: Klara Abkar Painting Museum, Hossein Behzad (miniature) Paintings Museum, Abkar Miniature Museum, Fine Arts Museum (18th & 19th century European paintings), Kamaleddin Behzad Miniature Museum, Mahmoud Farshchian Miniature Museum, - Mellat Palace Museum, Military Museum (موزه نظامی), Mir Emad Calligraphy Museum, Ethnological Research Museum, Iranian National Museum of War Green Museum (Shah Reza Summer Palace), Water Museum (keeping, restoring and revenue operation of water in Iran). Rojat Palace, Ebrat Palace (Mother), Vessels Museum (Ashraf Palace), Dafineh Museum, Farideh Diba Palace, Natural History Museum. Other buildings on complex area: Shahram Palace, Prince Palace, Leila Palace, Farahnaz Palace, Hamid Reza Palace, Gholamreza Palace, Nasiri Palace, Twin Ghajar Palace.


Azerbaijan Museum

This is the major archaeological museum in North-West of Iran. The museum includes the archaeological discoveries in Azerbaijan region. It has three galleries: Pre-Islamic History, Islamic History, and Coins. It also has a gallery for new sculptures in the basement and a yard for the stone sculptures. But poorly kept: very few translations and erratic classification make the trip inside the numerous dynasties intricate for first timers.



city in Iran


Bedkhem Church

Another interesting combination of Persian and Armenian religious architecture, this large church completed in 1627 is full of stunning paintings and frescoes. Behind Jolfa Square, less than 5 minute walk from Vank Cathedral.


Behnam House

The edifice was built during the later part of the Zand dynasty (1750–1794) and the early part of the Qajar dynasty (1781–1925), as a residential house. During the reign of Nasereddin Shah Qajar (1848–1896) this building was substantially renovated and embellished with ornamental paintings. The house consists of a main building, referred to as the Winter Building, and a smaller structure, referred to as the Summer Building. The Winter Building is a two-story symmetrical construction standing on a basement. Like many traditional houses in Iran, this house has an inner (اندرونی, andaruni) and an outer (بيرونی, biruni) courtyard, the former being the larger of the two. In the course of a 2009 renovation project, some hitherto unknown miniature frescoes were discovered in this house which were restored by specialists. The Behnām House is part of the School of Architecture of Tabriz Art University.


Tomb of Esther and Mordechai

Tomb of Esther and Mordechai


Constitution House of Tabriz

It is a house retracing the story of the Iranian constitutional revolution in the early 20th century. Quite well documented and well kept, although few English translations are available. The edifice is located next to the Tabriz grand bazaar, on Motahari Ave. During the years leading up to the Constitutional Revolution and afterwards, the house was used as the gathering place of the leaders, activists, and the sympathizers of the movement, among them Sattar Khan, Baqer Khan, Seqat ol-Eslam and Haji Mirza AqaFarshi. The two-story building was constructed in 1868 by Haj Vali Me'mar-e Tabrizi. It has numerous rooms and halls. The most beautiful parts of the house are a skylight and a corridor decorated with colorful glasses and mirrors. The museum is interesting only for visitors with advanced knowledge of Iran's history and the Consitutional Revolution in particular.


Vakil Mosque

Built between 1751 and 1773, during the Zand period; however, it was restored in the 19th century during the Qajar period where its exuberant floral decorative tiles date from. Parts of the mosque is still under construction so it's barely used as a mosque by locals.


Chaharbagh, Isfahan

1596, dating from the Saffavid era, the avenue is the most historically famous in all of Persia. Although it's just a regular street nowadays.


Yazd Atash Behram

Zoroastrian Fire Temple built in 1934. The fire on the inside has supposedly been burning since AD 470. It is believed to be one of the nine worldwide Atash Behrams or "Victorious Fires".


Kandovan, Osku

Located 50 km south of Tabriz, this village is famous because of man-made cliff dwellings which are still inhabited excavated inside volcanic rocks in foot hills of Mount Sahan. It is similar to dwellings in Cappadocia, Turkey. Great for both the odd beauty of the place and to see the daily life of an Iranian village. Women in printed chadors can go outside and playing kids are all around. Resistant walking shoes are mandatory if you want to climb up the village. A river passes through the valley, with a number of natural springs to the north of the river. Natural cones, scattered over a vast area, serve as human dwellings on rock formations which themselves seem to have been the work of sculptors. The road from Tabriz goes through this natural artwork. Large families live inside two or three of these hollow interconnected cones with features such as openings on their surface as windows. The lowest cones are used as stables and those on top as the living quarters. The interiors of the dwellings, usually divided into a living and a bed room, are dimly lit; however, the villagers are used to it. The interconnecting corridors are very narrow. From the outside, the dwellings look so similar to each other that one may easily get lost in the village. Steep pathways and steps are made of rock pieces for animals as well as human beings. As the legend goes, the first people to settle here were the soldiers involved in military operations nearly 800 years ago, who found the cones by chance and used them as their temporary camouflage and accommodation. However, among archaeologists, it is considered to be of Pre-Islamic Period.


Ali-Sadr Cave

cave in Iran


Afif-Abad Garden

Garden and houses owned by the Ghavami family. It contains a former royal mansion, a historical weapons museum, and a Persian garden that is one of the oldest gardens in Shiraz, all open to the public.


Joubi Bridge

It is one of Isfahan's oldest bridges and was built in 1665, during the Safavid era.


Tomb of Saadi

Here lie the earthly remains of one of Iran’s greatest poets. Even from the very early days after the poet’s death, the mausoleum of Sa’di became a place of pilgrimage to lovers of poetry and literature. In 1808 AD Karim Khan Zand renovated the mausoleum. The tomb was rebuilt in the early 1950s. The porch with its tall columns of pinkish marble is a traditional feature of Iranian architecture.



Eynali is the mountain range in a shape of a red wall just in north neighborhood of Tabriz. The red wall can be seen from most parts of the city. Many of Tabriz residents hike to the first peak of Eynali in early mornings or in the weekend. There is a paved trail from the foot hill of Mount Eynali in Northern highway of Tabriz to first peak of mount Eynali however there are more difficult trails to the peak, and a 90-degree wall as well. Eynali cable, a gondola lift, goes from the base to the station 1 at the peak. The station 1 which calls The Roof of Tabriz has a view to almost all of the city. There are couple of sites in the top station including an old shrine (a former Zoroastrian Temple), a monument for the unknown fallen soldiers (war heroes), two windmills and a restaurant, Bam-e-Tabriz. A small food court next to the shrine sells hot tea, milk, and appetizers.


Amir Chakhmaq Complex

Built as a mosque, it served as a caravanserai, a tekyeh, a bathhouse, a cold water well, and a confectionery. This imposing structure fronts a square in the old town, opposite the water museum. You can pay a small amount to go inside and climb to the top, giving good local views, including of a nearby badgir (water reservoir with wind towers). The square has interesting fountains and is nice at night.


Naryn castle (Meybod)

A mud-brick fort or castle built some 2,000 years ago, giving nice lookout on Meybod.


Hakim Mosque, Isfahan

One of the oldest mosques in Isfahan. Built by Shah Abbas II between 1656 and 1662. Located on the site of a 10th-century mosque. The portal was covered in mud until it was discovered in 1956.


Marnan Bridge


Tabiat Bridge

bridge in Iran



Is a grave yard and a memorial for the poets and famous writer who lived in the city. The most recent poet who buried here is Azerbaijan poet Shahriyar.


Chak Chak, Yazd

A pilgrimage center for Zoroastrians.


Fire temple of Isfahan

A Zoroastrian fire temple. This temple is dramatically set atop a rock on the outskirts of Isfahan and provides a commanding view of the city (although much of it is covered in smog). You can take one of the blue buses (ask at the drivers), which will take you there. Climbing it will be a challenge on flip-flops, impossible with them downhill.


Sadr Madrasa


Roudaki Hall



City in Razavi Khorasan, Iran


Delgosha Garden

Enjoy a walk in this lovely old garden with flowers and bitter orange trees.


Tomb of Hafez

Mausoleum of Hafez (1324–1391), the greatest master of Persian lyric poetry and the literary giant of the 14th century in the west and central Asia, was born in Shiraz, lived all his life here, sang its praises in unsurpassed verse and was buried in a garden known after him as the Hafezieh, in the northeast part of the city. The wide appeal of this poet among all Persian-speaking people make his tomb a cherished placed, visited by all. This mausoleum was rebuilt in the early 1950s. A flight of stone steps reaches to the tomb under a tiled cupola resembling a dervish’s hat. The tombstone is beautifully inscribed with two of Hafez’s poems or Ghazals. Visitors to the tomb can still, as they have done for centuries, take the omens, or faals, by picking a page at random from a volume of Hafez, kept for this purpose.


Sa'at Tower



The mosque is reserved for Muslims only.



One of the last remaining mud cities in Iran. Quite touristy place.


Babak Fort

A 9th-century castle in the peak of Jomhour in the middle of Arasbaran Forrest. It is nested on a rocky peak at an altitude of 2,700 m. Babak was one of the Iranian heroes fighting the Arabs invasion, around 9th century. The road goes up to the foot hills of the Jomhour castle and from there it takes 2 hours hiking walk to get up to the peak where the castle is, but definitely worth it. The castle has an interesting military design which made it impenetrable for invaders back in the days. It has also nice view to the forests around. It is better to visit it in summer time to avoid the harsh winter weather of the Azerbaijan region.



City in Razavi Khorasan, Iran



(Persian: دیزین) – one of the highest ski resorts in the world, two hours north of Tehran. Great powder snow, cheap prices and few international visitors makes this is a great place for a ski holiday.


Qasre Abunasr

Fortress built in Parthian Empire and was important and strategic location in Sassanid Empire. Archaeologists found various drachmas and art crafts belonged to different historical periods there. There is almost nothing left from those times, just stones.


Qur'an Gate

The city's main entrance. The original gate was built as an ornamental decoration by the Buwwayhids (Buwayhid dynasty) about 1000 years ago, but this was replaced 60 years ago by new gate, which is considered one of the finest architectural designs in Iran and has won numerous awards. From the gate walk up the stone stairways to enjoy picturesque and panoramic views of Shiraz. The tomb of Khajooyeh Kermanee, a famous poet, is also located here (entrance ticket 115,000 rials). Hidden in the alleys on the hill-side are numerous restaurants that serve the finest chelo kabob. It is an excellent place for picnics and taking photographs.


Greek Ship

Cargo ship beached on Kish Island since 1966


Vakil Bath

An old public bath which has been remodelled into a museum of waxworks.


Saint Mary Church of Tabriz

Hub of the Armenian community. Church and museum of the Armenian community of Tabriz. Previous church here was visited by Marco Polo in 1275 on his way to China. The tabernacle of the church was built in the style of Armenian architecture, parts of which can be dated back to the 12th century AD.



city in Iran


Qom Seminary

A place where devout Muslims gather to meet and hear speeches from the religious leaders.


Chitgar Lake

Also known as the Lake of Martyrs of the Persian Gulf, is an artificial and recreational lake in the north of Chitgar Park. The total area of this complex is about 250 hectares; 130 hectares across the lake, and the rest of it goes for the coastal zone and resorts. The lake has good weather and a it's host of migratory birds in some seasons.


Rayen Castle

On a day trip you can visit the magnificent old citadel (similar to Bam). It is well-preserved but has no explanation texts.


Qavam House

Both traditional and historical house, it was built in the mid-to-late 19th century by Mirza Ibrahim Khan. The Qavam "Naranjestan" preserves the elegance and refinement enjoyed by the upper-class families during the 19th century. The mirrored porch was a focal point of the house, overlooking onto gardens lined with date palms and flowers. The house today is a museum open to the public.


Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower

This used to be part of fire fighting services for the city of Tabriz, for monitoring of any sign of fire around the city. In case of fire, the watchman would inform the fire fighters with the directions of fire. Nowadays only the tower is kept in its original construction while a modern fire fighting station was built next to the tower.


Tabriz Museum of Natural History

A museum and gallery for caricature. There is also an annual international caricature competition held in here.


Flower Garden of Isfahan

Botanical garden.


Bird Garden of Isfahan

mosque in Iran


Marble Throne

A spectacular terrace (iwan) was built in 1806 by order of Fath Ali Shah Qajar (r. 1797-1834). Adorned by paintings, marble-carvings, tile-work, stucco, mirrors, enamel, woodcarvings, and lattice windows; the throne embodies the finest of Iranian architecture. The Marble Throne is one of the oldest buildings of the historic Arg. The existing throne, which is situated in the middle of the terrace (iwan), is made of the famous yellow marble of Yazd province.


Mangrove forests of Qeshm

mangrove forests near and on the island of Qeshm in the Persian Gulf, Iran


Jamshidieh Park


Kohneh Square


Ghushkhaneh garden

Garden under a huge net with a lot of different birds, some locked in and some that you can walk among.


Yam Ski Resort

Yam is an ski resort in north of Tabriz in vicinity of Marand cirty and in northern foot hills of Mishoodaghi. It is accessible via Tabirz-Marand highway.


Rab'-e Rashidi

It is ruins and remnants of an educational and scientific complex was built 13th century when Tabriz was the capital of Ilkhanid dynasty. Scientists, physicians, writers, and poets from all around the Ilkhanid territories brought here to built a big dominant scientific complex. They had schools for teaching the latest scientific discoveries of the time. An encyclopedia calls Safina-yi Tabriz is also written here. The recovery of the complex and its renovation is incomplete and some other constructions are going on the site.


Golestan Park

This is a city center park built in 1930s. It is a good place to relax under the shadows of trees.


East Azerbaijan Governance Palace

It is state palace and main office of East Azerbaijan Province governorship. This used to be the site for the residence palace and office building of the governor or crown prince of Iran and his office since 1500s. The palace and complex were destroyed in a major flood during 1930s when the current state palace built. The cite also include the Azerbaijan Governorship Museum.


we will see


Someday we will visit Iran or begin to dream about going there! However, for now its not on our radar. Let us know in the comments if you think that should change!


Iran (Persian: ایران) is a large country between the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea. It was renamed Iran in the early 20th century; before that it was known as Persia. It is bordered by Iraq to the west, Turkey, Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan enclave, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to the northwest, Turkmenistan to the northeast, and Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east.

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Afghanistan is a landlocked and mountainous country in the heart of Asia, bordered by Pakistan to the south and east, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north. There is a short border with China to the far northeast, but in extremely inaccessible terrain. The country has great many valleys.



The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان) is in South Asia and is the world's 34th largest country by size. With a population exceeding 180 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world. Pakistan is strategically located astride the ancient trade routes of the Khyber and Bolan passes between South Asia and Central Asia. Another pass, which now has the Karakoram Highway through it, leads to Western China. All these passes, and some ports in Pakistan, formed part of the ancient Silk Road which linked Asia and Europe.



Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye) is a bi-continental country, consisting of the Anatolian region of West Asia, and Eastern Thrace on the Balkan peninsula in Europe. These lands are separated by the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles). With the Black Sea to the north and the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean Sea to the southwest, Turkey borders Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast, and Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast. While geographically most of the country is situated in Asia, most Turkish people consider themselves to be Europeans.



Iraq (Arabic: العراق Al-Irāq) is a republic in the Middle East, north-west of the Persian Gulf. It borders Iran to the east, Kuwait to the south, Saudi Arabia to the southwest, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, and Turkey to the north.



Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a former Soviet republic in the Caucasus and variously considered part of Europe or Asia. The country lies on the Caspian Sea between Russia and Iran and is bordered to the west by Georgia and Armenia. The autonomous exclave of Nakhchivan lies between Armenia and Iran with a short border with Turkey. It is nicknamed the Land of Fire.



Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan) is a landlocked country in the Caucasus that is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east, and Azerbaijan's Naxcivan exclave to the southwest. This former Soviet republic straddles Asia and Europe and boasts an ancient and rich culture.



Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia with a population of about 5 million, and an area around half a million km2, or almost the size of Spain. Neighbouring countries are Iran and Afghanistan to the south, and Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to the north. It has a coast on the Caspian Sea, but is otherwise landlocked. Nearly 80% of the country is part of the Karakum Desert.

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